Northern California Climate

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CLIMATE OF SAN FRANCISCO

Topography

San Francisco is in an area of “exceedingly diversified topography” (McAdie, 1903) that is favorable to numerous microclimates (McAdie, 1913; Gilliam, 1962). Winds are channeled over and around the City of San Francisco by the terrain, resulting in pronounced differences in the weather across relatively short distances (Root, 1960; Null, 1978).

The development of the extremely varied California landscape is a consequence of the interaction between of the North American and Pacific tectonic plates (Alt & Hyndman, 1975). The most prominent features, and most important in their effect upon state’s climate (Root, 1960), are the Sierra Nevada and Coast ranges, between which lies the Great Valley. All three, generally oriented from northwest to southeast, are parallel to the motion of the North American plate.

San Francisco, which is described by approximately a seven mile by seven mile square, sits at the northern end of a peninsula, straddling the Coast Range just south of where it is broken by the Golden Gate. The melting of the ice sheets that covered the North American continent during the Pleistocene caused sea level to rise and flood the structural depression which is now San Francisco Bay (Howard, 1962; Alt & Hyndman, 1991). Outflow from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, fed by the drainages from the surrounding Sierra Nevada and Coast Range, maintains the breach as the only major outlet to the Pacific. San Francisco’s steep topography is the boundary between the Pacific Ocean on the west, San Francisco Bay to the east and the Golden Gate to the north. The highest terrain is toward the south, where the elevations rise to over 900 feet, with Mount Davidson’s peak of 938 feet the tallest, followed closely by Mount Sutro at 920 feet and both North and South Twin at 919 feet. In addition to the primary north- northwest to south-southeast ridgeline, a number of significant hills dominate the San Francisco horizon, as spurs off of the main axis. The city’s steepness is shown by the fact that the 60 meter elevation contour is generally within one mile of sea level (United States Geological Survey, 1973a, 1973b).

Because of the small area that San Francisco covers there are no significant natural drainage basins within the city limits. Those which may have existed historically have long since been constrained to underground culverts and the storm drain system.

Climate

The sharp topography and maritime surroundings of San Francisco combine with the unique California climate to produce a number of extremely varied microclimates within its 46 square miles. California’s location in the middle latitudes and on the west coast of the North American continent, places it in the relatively rare Mediterranean (Etesian) type climate (K”ppen type Cs). The only other regions of the earth sharing this climate type are the southwestern tip of Africa, the west coast of Chile, the west coast of Australia, and of course, the region surrounding the Mediterranean Sea (Critchfield, 1966). This type of climate type is generally characterized by moist mild winters and dry summers.

San Francisco’s climate is further modified by the location of the City on the northern end of a peninsula, surrounded on three sides by the relatively cool waters of the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay. In addition to the normal cool temperatures of the mid-latitude Pacific Ocean, the water temperatures are modified by the upwelling of cold water along the California coast. This phenomenon is caused by the persistence of the Pacific High and the northwest winds that are constrained by the Coast Range to blow parallel to the coastline. The effects of these winds, the Coriolis Force and resultant sub-surface Ekman Spiral, causes a net transport of surface waters away from the shore. Consequently, as the surface waters drift away from the coast, they are replaced by the upwelling of colder waters from below (Ahrens, 1991).

Summertime in San Francisco is characterized by cool marine air and persistent coastal stratus and fog, with average maximum temperatures between 60øF and 70øF, and minima between 50øF and 55øF. The mornings will typically find the entire city overcast followed by clearing on the warmer bay side, but only partial clearing on the cooler ocean side. The summertime temperature gradient across the city is generally from northwest to southeast, with the warmer readings farthest from the coast and in the wind sheltered valleys east of the Coast Range bisector. These differences are enhanced further by a strong afternoon and evening seabreeze that is a result of the temperature (and consequently pressure) difference between the Pacific Ocean and the interior valleys of California. These westerly winds are channeled through the Golden Gate and lesser breaks in the high terrain of the Coast Range, reaching a maximum during the afternoon with speeds between 20 and 30 miles per hour being typical (Root, 1960).

Rainfall from May through September is relatively rare, with an aggregate of less than an inch, or only about 5 percent of the yearly average total of approximately 21.5 inches. Off- season rains which do occur are usually the result of weak early or late season occluded fronts, or surges of subtropical moisture from the south that result in brief showers or thundershowers spreading into the area. Considerable moisture is due to drizzle when the marine layer deepens sufficiently. This is seldom enough to measure (i.e., less than .01 inch) on any given day, except along the immediate coast.

Winter temperatures in San Francisco are quite temperate, with highs between 55øF and 60øF and lows in the 45øF to 50øF range (Null, 1978). The main source region of wintertime fog in San Francisco is the Great Valley. Radiation fog is formed in the moist regions of the Sacramento River Delta and is advected through Suisun and San Pablo Bays and into San Francisco Bay on cool easterly drainage winds. This type of fog is less common than that of summer, but is typically much denser and has a greater impact upon transportation systems due to greatly reduced visibilities (Root, 1960).

Over 80 percent of San Francisco’s seasonal rain falls between November and March, occurring over about 10 days per month. Winter rains on the California coast are primarily due to occluded fronts on a trajectory from the west-northwest, and an occasional cold front from the Gulf of Alaska. These systems are driven southward during the winter as the Pacific High drifts south and westerlies and Polar jetstream dip south of 40øN. Winter thunderstorms occur on the average only twice per season in cold unstable post-frontal airmasses. There is also considerable areal variation of annual precipitation amounts. The isohyet (contours of equal rainfall) analysis developed by Rantz (1971) depicts a maximum (22 ” contour) over the higher terrain in the south central portion of San Francisco. This is primarily due to the orographic effects resulting from uplift of the airflow from the Pacific striking the Coast Range. The 20″ contour is along the western edge and also across the northeastern quadrant of San Francisco, with the 18″ contour just touching the waterfront in the extreme northeast.

Snow is extremely rare in San Francisco, with only 10 documented instances of measurable snow at the official observing site in the past 143 seasons. Snow has fallen on a number of other occasions, but usually only in trace amounts or at the higher elevations. Additionally, some of these occurrences are not true snow events but were the result of either small hail or ice pellets (Pericht, 1988).

Spring and fall are transition periods for San Francisco. These seasons usually produce the most cloud-free days between the overcast days of summertime stratus and the rain laden clouds of winter. San Francisco’s hottest days are typically during the spring and fall when high pressure builds into the Pacific Northwest and Great Basin, and dry offshore winds replace the Pacific seabreeze. The three hottest days in San Francisco occurred in September and October (Pericht, 1988).

The occurrence of rainfall during the early spring and fall is infrequent, with only about 5 days per month on the average. While most storms during these periods produce light precipitation, the occasional coupling of polar and subtropical airmasses can produce heavy rainfall events. For example, the “Columbus Day Storm” (October 11, 1962 through October 13, 1962) dropped over five inches of rain on San Francisco (Null, 1978). The diversity of San Francisco’s microclimates in general and its rainfall patterns in particular must be considered when utilizing the data from a single site. In a relatively flat region, without the influences of the ocean and topography, there is little discernible change in annual rainfall averages with distance. However, within a distance of only a few miles in San Francisco there can be as much as a 20 percent difference in average annual rainfall (i.e., from 18″ to 22″).
San Francisco Station Locations and History.

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DigiMarCon Silicon Valley - Inquiries

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Got questions? We have answers…

This page will answer many of the questions you may have about DigiMarCon Silicon Valley 2019.

 


When and where is the DigiMarCon Silicon Valley 2019 Conference?

DigiMarCon Silicon Valley 2019 takes place from May 23rd to 24th, 2019 at the InterContinental San Francisco Hotel in San Francisco, California. Click here for travel details.

InterContinental San Francisco Hotel Address:
888 Howard St
San Francisco, CA 94103
United States

Location:

  • 20 minutes from Silicon Valley International Airport
  • Direct access to a magnificent California beach
  • Short walk to Santa Monica Pier, cliff-top Palisades Park, and trendy Third Street Promenade
  • Minutes from Beverly Hills, Century City and West L.A.


Directions:

 

From San Francisco International Airport:

  • Take US-101 N to 6th St in San Francisco. Take exit 57 from I-280 N
  • Head north-west on US-101 N
  • Use the right 2 lanes to take exit 430A towards Downtown SF
  • Merge onto I-280 N
  • Use the right 2 lanes to take exit 57 for Sixth Street
  • Take Bryant St and 3rd St to Howard St
  • Continue onto 6th St
  • Turn right onto Bryant St
  • Use the left 2 lanes to turn left onto 3rd St
  • Turn left onto Howard St

From Oakland International Airport:

  • Get on I-880 N from 98th Ave
  • Head south on Ron Cowan Pkwy towards John Glenn Dr
  • Use the left 2 lanes to turn left onto the slip road to Interstate 880/Downtown Oakland
  • Merge onto Bessie Coleman Dr
  • Keep left to continue on 98th Ave
  • Use the right 2 lanes to take the Interstate 880 N slip road to Downtown/Oakland
  • Continue on I-880 N. Take I-80 W to Fremont St in San Francisco. Take exit 2C from I-80 W
  • Merge onto I-880 N
  • Use the left 3 lanes to take the Interstate 80 W exit towards San Francisco
  • Keep left at the fork and merge onto I-80 W
  • Use the right 2 lanes to take exit 2C to merge onto Fremont St
  • Drive to Howard St
  • Use the left lane to merge onto Fremont St
  • Turn left onto Howard St

From San Jose International Airport:

  • Get on I-880 S from Airport Blvd
  • Head south-east on Terminal Dr
  • Use the right 2 lanes to turn slightly right to stay on Terminal Dr
  • Use the left 2 lanes to turn slightly left towards Airport Blvd
  • Continue onto Airport Blvd
  • Use the right 2 lanes to turn slightly right towards Airport Blvd
  • Continue onto Airport Blvd
  • Merge onto I-880 S via the ramp on the left to Santa Cruz
  • Take I-280 N and US-101 N to Bryant St in San Francisco. Take exit 2 from I-80 E
  • Merge onto I-880 S
  • Take exit 1B to merge onto I-280 N towards San Francisco
  • Use the right 2 lanes to take exit 43B for I-380 E towards San Francisco International Airport
  • Continue onto I-380 E
  • Use the left lanes to take exit 6B-7 to merge onto US-101 N towards San Francisco
  • Keep right at the fork to continue on I-80 E, follow signs for Bay Bridge/Interstate 80
  • Use the 2nd from the right lane to take exit 2 for Fourth Street
  • Take 3rd St to Howard St
  • Use the left lane to turn left onto Bryant St
  • Use the left 2 lanes to turn left onto 3rd St
  • Turn left onto Howard St

Parking Information:

Parking is valet only and is $70.68 per day (subject to change).


What’s the Schedule?

Here’s the high-level schedule (note: all times are Pacific Daylight Time):

Thursday, May 23, 2019
9:00am - 9:45am: Registration Check-in, Welcome Refreshments & Networking
9:45am - 12:00pm: General Session
12:00pm – 1:00pm: Networking Luncheon
1:00pm – 2:30pm: General Session
2:30pm – 3:10pm: Refreshments & Networking
3:10pm – 5:00pm: General Session
5:00pm – 7:00pm: Welcome Cocktail Reception

Friday, May 24, 2019
9:00am - 9:45am: Registration Check-in, Welcome Refreshments & Networking
9:45am – 12:30pm: Master Classes
12:30pm – 1:30pm: Networking Luncheon
1:30pm – 3:30pm: Master Classes
3:30pm - 5:30pm: Farewell Cocktail Reception


How much does it cost to attend DigiMarCon Silicon Valley 2019?

How much does it cost to attend DigiMarCon East 2019?

Regular price is $797 (USD) for a main conference access. We are also offering an All Access Pass, which includes the main conference, all Master Classes, Welcome and Farewell Cocktail Receptions and Video on Demand, for $1,097 (USD). Last but not least we have a Virtual Pass/Video On Demand (VOD) option for those who can’t make the conference for $347 (USD). For more information about pricing and the different passes available please click here.


What is included in the Main Conference Pass registration fee?

Your completed Main Conference Pass registration provides you the following:

  • Conference Bag
  • All General Sessions – Thursday, May 23rd, 2019
  • TECHSPO Hall (Unlimited Access) – Thursday, May 23rd, 2019
  • AM/PM Refreshments, Networking Luncheon – Thursday, May 23rd, 2019
  • Welcome Cocktail Reception – Thursday, May 23rd, 2019


What is included in the All Access Pass registration fee?

Your completed All Access Pass registration provides you everything included in the Main Conference Pass plus the following:

  • All Master Classes – Friday, May 10th, 2019
  • TECHSPO Hall (Unlimited Access) – Friday, May 24th, 2019
  • AM Refreshments, Networking Luncheon – Friday, May 24th, 2019
  • Farewell Cocktail Reception – Friday, May 24th, 2019
  • On Demand – Available online approximately 2 weeks after conference concludes


What is included in the VIP Pass registration fee?

Your completed VIP Pass registration provides you everything included in the All Access Pass plus the following:

  • VIP Priority Registration Check-In – Thursday, May 23rd, 2019
  • VIP Seating on General Session Day – Thursday, May 23rd, 2019
  • VIP Seating on Master Class Day – Friday, May 24th, 2019


How do I register? Register now!

Full registration information is available here.


What forms of payment are accepted?

The following forms of payment are accepted: American Express, Visa, MasterCard, and PayPal. Payment is required to complete your registration.


Is there a group discount?

Absolutely! Bring as many colleagues as you’d like! Register FOUR or more people from the same company simultaneously to receive $200 discount off the prevailing registration price for each member of your group.

There are just a few simple Group Registration rules:

  • All registrants must be employed by the same company.
  • All members of the group must be registered at the same time. Discounts will not be applied retroactively.
  • You must pre-register to take advantage of these rates, which will not be offered on site.
  • Group Registration Rates cannot be combined with any other offers.

More details about Group Rates here.


Are there academic, government, nonprofit or military discounts?

Academic, Government, Military & Non-Profit discount rates at DigiMarCon Silicon Valley 2019 apply to current full-time employees of academic institutions, federal, state or local government agencies, international government agencies, active military and non-profit organization employees only.

More details about Discount Rates here.


What is the dress code?

Conference attire is business casual for all events, including the evening events. We do recommend bringing a sweater or light jacket with you since personal preferences vary regarding room temperature.


Can I bring a guest to the conference and networking events?

All attendees at the conference and networking events must be registered attendees who purchased tickets.


Can I send a substitute in my place?

You may send a substitute in your place at any time. All such requests must be submitted by email to registration[at]digimarcon.com (replace at with @). Only requests made by the original registrant will be honored.


What is the refund policy?

You may cancel your participation in DigiMarCon Silicon Valley 2019 at any time, but please be aware of the following cancellation policy listed below.

Registration cancellations received 90 days prior to the Conference incur a 25% processing/administrative fee. Refunds will be issued within 30 days after event. If you must cancel for any reason, notify our registration department by 90 days prior to the Conference. Cancellations less than 90 days prior to the Conference are non-refundable. Substitutions allowed prior to 90 days prior to the Conference with written or Faxed authorization only. No substitutions less than 90 days prior to the Conference. Cancellations less than 90 days prior to the Conference are non-refundable for any reason, including, but not limited to, failure to use DigiMarCon credentials due to illness, acts of God, travel-related problems, acts of terrorism, loss of employment and duplicate purchase. DigiMarCon will not issue refunds for badges that have been revoked.

Unused registrations/applications have no monetary value and cannot be credited to future years or events. DigiMarCon will not issue refunds or credits due to failure to redeem a discount coupon during the registration process. Discounted prices are based on the date payment is received in the DigiMarCon office. Reselling DigiMarCon Silicon Valley 2019 registrations is not permitted.


I live outside of United States, do you accept attendees from other countries?

Yes, international attendees are welcome at each of our conferences.


I live outside of United States and my country requires a Visa to visit United States, can DigiMarCon prepare an invitation letter for me to attend the conference for Visa Processing purposes?

Yes, this is often requested for International Attendees. After you have registered, send a letter request email to info@digimarcon.com and provide your address, company name, company title and passport information to be included in the invitation letter.


I live outside of United States and my country requires a Visa to visit United States, if my Visa Application is declined will I get a refund?

You can request a cancellation at any time. Refer to our refund policy for refund eligibility criteria.


Where should I stay in Silicon Valley?

The official conference hotel to stay in Silicon Valley is;

InterContinental San Francisco Hotel
888 Howard St
San Francisco, CA 94103
United States
http://www.intercontinentalsanfrancisco.com/

Hotel Booking Instructions

To book a room at InterContinental San Francisco Hotel follow the instructions below;

By Phone:
Call 1-866-781-2364, ask for reservations, give group name ‘DigiMarCon Silicon Valley 2019’ and arrival date and book.


What networking activities are associated with DigiMarCon Silicon Valley 2019?

A full list of the official conference networking functions are available here.


Will I receive event updates?

Yes, DigiMarCon will send emails periodically to update you on the agenda, event happenings and logistics. Please make sure that the email address registration[at]digimarcon.com (replace at with @) is in your safe senders list to ensure you are receiving all important event information.


How can I submit to speak at DigiMarCon Silicon Valley 2019?

There are a limited number of sponsored keynote speaking spots still available during the conference. Please contact Aaron Polmeer, aaron[at]digimarcon.com (replace at with @), if you are interested in this opportunity.


Can I record what is presented at DigiMarCon Silicon Valley 2019?

Sessions may be audio recorded without special permission for personal use only. They cannot be placed online or transmitted to others without permission.

Sessions may be videoed only with special permission for personal use and also cannot be placed online or transmitted to others. Short audio and video clips may be used for blogging and press coverage of sessions. As a general guide, non-contiguous clips of one minute or less should be used. Contact us if you need guidance about longer clips.


How can we sponsor DigiMarCon Silicon Valley 2019?

Complete the sponsorship inquiry form here for more details on sponsorship, exhibiting and advertising opportunities at DigiMarCon Silicon Valley 2019.


Do you have an affiliate program?

Yes we do. Become a DigiMarCon Affiliate and earn commission on every completed registration referred by your efforts. Click here for details.


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